Complex biological-cognitive-social interactions determine the neurocognitive pathways of normal aging (NA) and neurodegeneration (ND). The study of those interactions has grown in high-income countries; however, these efforts are still reduced in Latin American countries (LAC). A further assessment of the biological-cognitive-social interactions in LAC is required considering the particular genetic ancestry in the region and the concomitant high prevalence of risky social determinants of health (SDH, including the social adversities, reduced access to health resources, social isolation, and stressful life events). The SDH have shown to impact a broad spectrum of health and cognitive outcomes, including mental and physical health, the cognitive reserve (CR, a resilient cognitive factor that promotes healthy aging), as well as, the social cognitive processes (SC), and the clinical functionality (CF). Against this background, we aimed to understand the extent to which the interplay between the SDH and a group of cognitive-clinical biomarkers (including the CR, SC, and the CF) shapes the multimodal neurocognitive phenotypes of NA and ND in LAC. This knowledge helps us to develop an international research proposal to study the interactions between SDH, CR, SC, and CF and the particular genetic-epigenetic gradients associated with NA and ND in LAC.